As earth's population continues to grow and the detrimental aftereffects of industrialization and environmental negligence become more apparent, society has become more aware of, and concerned about, stewardship of the natural environment - water, soil, and air. Sustainable development has become more widely received and promoted in many parts of the world. The need is now critical for earth and environmental scientists and engineers to work together to implement technologies that can preserve our environment. The Earth's population was 6.6 billion as of April 2007 according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This number is expected to rise to 9.4 billion by 2050. The population is increasing the demand for natural resources and energy, and increasing stress on the environment. Thus, protection of the environment and remediation of damage to the environment must be a priority. It is also important to develop procedures that will help to avert further damage to the environment and to recognize as early as possible the risks associated with changes in the environment. Many methodologies and technologies have become more advanced in the past few decades, and new technologies and approaches have been developed, all to address the growing need for environmental assessment, monitoring, and remediation. As these technologies have grown, the need for interdisciplinary cooperation has also become more apparent. Specialists in remote sensing, geophysical methods, hydrogeology, geology, and geochemistry must maintain current awareness of developments within their sister disciplines in order to formulate effective overall approaches for environmental issues.
The lithosphere is the outer solid part of the earth, including the crust and uppermost mantle. The lithosphere is about 100 km thick, although its thickness is age dependent (older lithosphere is thicker).The lithosphere below the crust is brittle enough at some locations to produce earthquakes by faulting, such as within a subducted oceanic plate. This book presents leading research in the field from around the globe.
Volcanic dust, climate change, tsunamis, earthquakes--geoscience explores phenomena that profoundly affect our lives. But more than that, as Doug Macdougall makes clear, the science also provides important clues to the future of the planet. In an entertaining and accessibly written narrative, Macdougall gives an overview of Earth's astonishing history based on information extracted from rocks, ice cores, and other natural archives. He explores such questions as: What is the risk of an asteroid striking Earth? Why does the temperature of the ocean millions of years ago matter today? How are efforts to predict earthquakes progressing? Macdougall also explains the legacy of greenhouse gases from Earth's past and shows how that legacy shapes our understanding of today's human-caused climate change. We find that geoscience in fact illuminates many of today's most pressing issues--the availability of energy, access to fresh water, sustainable agriculture, maintaining biodiversity--and we discover how, by applying new technologies and ideas, we can use it to prepare for the future.
Our world is made of rock. Although much of the Earth's surface is covered by vegetation, concrete or water, if one digs down far enough solid rock will always be found. Those who live in a landscape where rock outcrops are obvious will have wondered about the kind of rocks they are looking at and how they came to be where they are now.Graham Park's introductory book has swiftly established itself as a key resource for those looking for a straightforward explanation of what geology tells us about the world. Many objects of great beauty and which excite our curiosity, such as crystals or fossils, are to be found by examining rocks. In particular fossils, whilst interesting in themselves, tell us from their context in geological time of biological evolution and these clues give an insight into the origins of life on earth.Copiously illustrated this book is intended for those whose interest in geology has been awakened, perhaps by media coverage of earthquakes or of dinosaurs, and want to know more. It has proved an ideal primer for those considering the study of earth sciences more formally. Technical terms are kept to a minimum and are explained in a glossary.
Add to this the thousands of farms that have grown back towoods since the Civil War, and you have the most forested state, by percentage,in the United States. But the "uninterrupted forest" that Henry David Thoreaufirst saw in the 1840s was never exactly that. Loggers had cut it severely,European settlers had gnawed into it, and, much earlier, native people had lefttheir mark. This book takes you deep into the past to understand the present,allowing you to hear the stories of the people and events that have shaped thewoods and made them what they are today.
"Open Educational Resources
This text is provided to you as an Open Educational Resource which you access online. It is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to Geology at no or very nominal cost. It contains both written and graphic text material, intra-text links to other internal material which may aid in understanding topics and concepts, intra-text links to the appendices and glossary for tables and definitions of words, and extra-text links to videos and web material that clarifies and augments topics and concepts. Like any new or scientific subject, Geology has its own vocabulary for geological concepts. For you to converse effectively with this text and colleagues in this earth science course, you will use the language of geology, so comprehending these terms is important. Use the intra-text links to the Glossary and other related material freely to gain familiarity with this language." - works with GEO 101
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